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Thèse Année : 2021

The Chalk, the Pen and the Podium - Trajectories of Female Intellectuals committed to the Building of a secular School (France, 1880s-1914)

La craie, la plume et la tribune - Trajectoires d'intellectuelles engagées pour l'école laïques (France, années 1880-1914)

Résumé

This work is at the crossroads between intellectual history, history of education and women's and gender history. Its goal is to analyse the course of life of around ten female public intellectuals as well as their commitment on behalf of secular [laïque] instruction. This work studies the period between the enactment of the school laws in the 1880s and the First World War, when the debates around secular school reach their peak in France. The goal is to analyse how several women become considered as public intellectuals. To do so, it is required to analyse how they get access to learned culture and to study the way they use their educational capital and their professional experience in the field of instruction to express a personal critical opinion in the public sphere. This study will analyse their contribution to the debates when secular instruction is a very controversial matter in a context of competition between secular school and Catholic school. The Dreyfus Affair plays a role in the commitments of these female public intellectuals because it questions the purposes of secular instruction and popular education and contributes to the rebuilding of the republican political culture. In the same way, the feminist thrust which appears at the end of the XIXth and the beginning of the XXth century encourages these female intellectuals to question the scholastic institution. This work follows in the footsteps of several women, who were left in the shadow by historians, but who committed themselves in their job as teachers, as well as by taking up a pen to express their viewpoints on controversial matters and, sometimes, by coming to the tribune.
Située au carrefour de l’histoire des intellectuels, de l’histoire de l’éducation et de l’histoire des femmes et du genre, cette thèse étudie la trajectoire d’une dizaine de femmes engagées dans la construction de l’école laïque sous la Troisième République, entre la période des lois scolaires et la Grande Guerre. Le but est d’analyser leur construction en tant qu’intellectuelles, tout d’abord en étudiant la manière dont elles accèdent à la culture savante, ensuite en analysant la façon dont elles mobilisent leur capital scolaire et leur expérience professionnelle dans l’instruction pour exprimer publiquement un point de vue critique. Il s’agit ainsi d’analyser leur contribution aux débats qui secouent la Troisième République, dans un contexte où l’instruction laïque cristallise les controverses.
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Dates et versions

tel-03966989 , version 1 (01-02-2023)

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  • HAL Id : tel-03966989 , version 1

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Mélanie Fabre. The Chalk, the Pen and the Podium - Trajectories of Female Intellectuals committed to the Building of a secular School (France, 1880s-1914). Humanities and Social Sciences. EHESS - Paris, 2021. English. ⟨NNT : 2021EHES0106⟩. ⟨tel-03966989⟩
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